Do Actors Call Use Cases?

UML 1.3 has made a pair of changes concerning the use case relationships; one is to move include and extend that used to be stereotypes of the generalization into those of the dependency, and the other is to introduce a true generalization. A use-case generalization, however, is practically useless and therefore the changes are rather worsening the situation. The ACU or “Actors Call Use cases” conjecture, which is actually against the definition of a use case, is found buried in OOSE. It distorts the features of use-case objects and is the root cause of the problems. Strictly following the definition of a use case, a real-world model is built that represents a typical situation of using a use case in the analysis and design stages, and a use case is reified as an ordinary object. The use-case specification thus constructed successfully solves the problems.